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The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. It is a type of action-research, a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action, and research leading to social action. Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice.
(Lewin 1946, reproduced in Lewin 1948: 202-3)

Action research is simply a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own practices, their understanding of these practices, and the situations in which the practices are carried out
(Carr and Kemmis 1986: 162)

The systematic collection of information that is designed to bring about social change
(Bogdan and Biklen 1992: 223)

Action research is the process through which teachers collaborate in evaluating their practice jointly; raise awareness of their personal theory; articulate a shared conception of values; try out new strategies to render the values expressed in their practice more consistent with the educational values they espouse; record their work in a form which is readily available to and understandable by other teachers; and thus develop a shared theory of teaching by researching practice."
(John Elliott)

The approach is only action research when it is collaborative, though it is important to realise that action research of the group is achieved through the critically examined action of individual group members.
(Kemmis and McTaggart 1988: 5-6)

What does it imply ?


• It is democratic, enabling the participation of all people.
• It is equitable, acknowledging people’s equality of worth.
• It is liberating, providing freedom from oppressive, debilitating conditions.
• It is life enhancing, enabling the expression of people’s full human potential.
(Stringer 1999: 9-10)


- On the main Projectvolunteering page  (empty  :( )
- Wikipedia
- Index of links on Action-reasearch
- Another
- Yet another
- Bibliography
- Applied for a school
- Informal Education Resource
- Applied to professional development


Smith, M. K. (1996; 2001, 2007) 'Action research', the encyclopedia of informal education,

Subpages (1): Responsible consuming